Conservative Dentistry and Endodontic Journal

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2022 | January-June | Volume 7 | Issue 1

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Ganesh Chitharanjan


[Year:2022] [Month:January-June] [Volume:7] [Number:1] [Pages:1] [Pages No:iv - iv]

   DOI: 10.5005/cej-7-1-iv  |  Open Access | 



Stuti Kedia, Indiresha Narayana, Rajatha Vijay Shetty, Eva Shukla, Dinesh Kalasaiah

Stress Distribution in Teeth Restored with Different Posts Using Single or Multi-post Technique: A Three-dimensional Finite Element Analysis

[Year:2022] [Month:January-June] [Volume:7] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:1 - 6]

Keywords: Endodontically treated tooth, EverStick post, Fiber-reinforced composite post, Multiple-post, Single-post

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10048-0110  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: The reconstruction of endodontically treated teeth (ETT) is frequently required before the accomplishment of a definitive restoration, especially when the remaining coronal tooth structure is inadequate to provide retention and resistance form for the restoration. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the stress distribution in premolar teeth restored with different posts using a single or multi-post technique with the help of three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA). Materials and methods: The FEA was used in the investigation. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan of mandibular 1st premolar was used to create a geometric model. With the help of HyperMesh software version 13.0, four finite element models were created. Model-1, endodontically treated mandibular premolar with single conventional fiber post (0.8 GC Fiber Post, GC Europe, Leuven, Belgium), Model-2, endodontically treated mandibular premolar with single everStick post (0.9 everStick POST, GC Europe, Belgium), Model-3, endodontically treated mandibular premolar with multiple conventional fiber posts, and Model-4, endodontically treated mandibular premolar with multiple everStick posts. ANSYS software version 12.1 was used for FEA. Results: Following the analysis, von Mises stress (VMS) and principal stress values were obtained. Maximum VMS values were obtained on the buccal cusp of the crown. Between conventional fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) post and everStick post, everStick post showed less stress, whereas between single and multiple post models, multiple post models showed more stress. The Principal stress values showed that the stress distribution within the crown, dentin, and posts was not significant to cause fracture of these materials. Conclusion: Within the limitation of the study, and from the simulation results and summary table following conclusions were made: • Stresses are less in everStick post compared to conventional FRC post. • Single post showed lesser stress compared to multi-post method. Clinical significance: Strengthening ETT with the use of single or multiple smaller diameter posts applying a minimally invasive approach for post space preparation. The study of stress distribution will help us in determining the failure criterion that leads to ETT fracture. It is significant because fracture is one of the most common causes of failure of ETT.



Shyma Peradi, Josey Mathew, Liza George, Sinju Paul, Aleesha Joy

The Prevalence of COVID Infection and Adverse Events Following Immunization with COVID-19 Vaccine (Covishield) Among Healthcare Workers and Students of a Dental College in Kerala: A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2022] [Month:January-June] [Volume:7] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:7 - 10]

Keywords: Adverse events following immunization, Adverse events following vaccination, Coronavirus disease-2019 vaccines

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10048-0108  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Any untoward event following immunization without essentially having a cause-and-effect relationship with usage of vaccine is an “Adverse Event Following Immunization (AEFI).” The study aimed at evaluating adverse events experienced by healthcare workers (HCWs) and students of a dental college, following immunization AEFI, with at least one dose of Covishield vaccine developed by Oxford University and AstraZeneca. The association of AEFI across various sex and age groups was also assessed. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted online among coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-vaccinated teaching staff, postgraduate students, interns, undergraduate students, and nonteaching staff of a dental college. The common AEFI, post-vaccination activities, and demographic characteristics were collected from respondents using a questionnaire. The effect of host-related factors on 14 specific symptoms of AEFI was also assessed. Results: After screening, those above 18 years old and received minimum dose of Covishield, 240 participants were included in the study from the dental college. Only 72/240 (30%) participants did not report any AEFI, whereas 11/240 (4.6%) had symptoms of severe intensity. The commonest AEFI reported were moderate weakness (60.8%), pain at the injection site (60.8%), followed by fever (60%), body ache (10.7%), nausea (6.7%), headache (5.8%), chills (5%), and vomiting (1.7%). Females experienced more AEFI than males, particularly gastrointestinal symptoms. The participant's age and number of doses taken affected AEFI. A decrease in self-reported AEFI was associated with increasing age or number of vaccine doses. There is a significant association of AEFI with age of the participants (p < 0.01). Conclusions: In the first 48 hours, AEFI was mostly observed. In the following weeks, the incidence decreased, with no AEFI reported after 15 days following both doses. Adverse events following immunization reported were mild and short-lived. No serious incidents were reported. We have assessed risk factors related to AEFI in participants vaccinated with Covishield. The important factors affecting AEFI are gender, age, and vaccine doses in this study.



Varsha Sam, VP Prabhath Singh, Anju Varughese, Sapna Chandira Muddappa

The Impact of Dental Adhesives on the Shear Bond Strength between Restorations in Sandwich Technique: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

[Year:2022] [Month:January-June] [Volume:7] [Number:1] [Pages:12] [Pages No:11 - 22]

Keywords: Dental restoration, “Etch and rinse” adhesive system, Sandwich technique, Self-etch adhesive system, Shear bond strength

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10048-0107  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Purpose: The systematic review aims to evaluate the difference in shear bond strength (SBS) of “etch and rinse” to self-etch adhesive systems, when used between restorations in the sandwich technique. Methods: Electronic search was performed on PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane library databases. The studies published till March 31, 2021 were taken up for the review. A customized tool was used to assess the risk of bias. Covidence software was used to record the decisions, and RevMan 5.1 was used to perform meta-analysis. Data were collected regarding SBS and modes of failure of different etching systems. Results: Ten in vitro studies were included for qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis after screening. Self-etch adhesive system showed a higher SBS value compared to the “etch and rinse” adhesive system in the quantitative synthesis. However, there was not a significant difference between both the adhesive groups when a two-step self-etch adhesive system was used with glass ionomer cement. Cohesive failure was seen predominantly in both the adhesive system's followed by mixed and adhesive failure. The articles showed a low-to-moderate risk of bias. Conclusion: Self-etch adhesive systems are recommended over “etch and rinse” adhesive systems in sandwich technique. Clinical significance: The better SBS provided by self-etch adhesive system compared to “etch and rinse” adhesive system can widen the life span of sandwich restorations.


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