Conservative Dentistry and Endodontic Journal

Register      Login

VOLUME 3 , ISSUE 1 ( January-June, 2018 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Effect of Microelectric Current and Other Activation Techniques on Dissolution Abilities of Sodium Hypochlorite at Different Temperatures in Bovine Tissues: An in vitro Study

Shemil M Sha, Sajeena Narayanan, Baji Babu, Rajesh Pillai, Nettiyat O Varghese, Afzal A Salim, Abe Antony

Keywords : Microelectric current, Sodium hypochlorite, Temperature, Tissue dissolution

Citation Information : Sha SM, Narayanan S, Babu B, Pillai R, Varghese NO, Salim AA, Antony A. Effect of Microelectric Current and Other Activation Techniques on Dissolution Abilities of Sodium Hypochlorite at Different Temperatures in Bovine Tissues: An in vitro Study. Cons Dent Endod J 2018; 3 (1):1-5.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10048-0030

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-01-2018

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2018 Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Aim: To study the effects of microelectric current and other methods at different temperatures, on the dissolution of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Materials and methods: Bovine muscle tissues (n = 165) were prepared and grouped into three temperature groups: (1) Room temperature, (2) 45°C, and (3) 600°C. Each temperature group was divided into five subgroups: (i) Control group: 5.25% NaOCl; (ii) 5.25% NaOCl with pipetting; (iii) 5.25% NaOCl with sonic activation; (iv) 5.25% NaOCl with ultrasonic activation; and (v) E-NaOCl = 5.25% NaOCl with microelectric current. Weight of specimens before and after treatment was done. In each group average, standard deviation and median were found out. The data were analyzed using multiway analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) tests. The alpha-type error was set at <0.05. Results: Tissue dissolution was highest with the ultrasonic group (p < 0.05), and the tissue dissolution ability of other groups was significantly higher than the positive control (p < 0.05) at room temperature. E-NaOCl group dissolved greater quantity of tissue (p < 0.05) at 45°C and at 60°C. Conclusion: NaOCl used along with microelectric current produced a higher tissue-dissolving ability. Combining with other techniques provides a synergistic effect on tissue dissolution.


PDF Share
  1. Kakehashi S, Stanley HR, Fitzgerald RJ. The effects of surgical exposures of dental pulps in germ-free and conventional laboratory rats. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1965 Sep;20: 340-349.
  2. Haapasalo M, Shen Y, Wang Z, Gao Y. Irrigation in endodontics. Br Dent J 2014 Mar;216(6):299-303.
  3. Moorer WR, Wesselink PR. Factors promoting the tissue dissolving capability of sodium hypochlorite. Int Endod J 1982 Oct;15(4):187-196.
  4. Jungbluth H, Marending M, De-Deus G, Sener B, Zehnder M. Stabilizing sodium hypochlorite at high pH: effects on soft tissue and dentin. J Endod 2011 May;37(5):693-696.
  5. Zehnder M. Root canal irrigants. J Endod 2006 May;32(5): 389-398.
  6. Stojicic S, Zivkovic S, Qian W, Zhang H, Haapasalo M. Tissue dissolution by sodium hypochlorite: Effect of concentration, temperature, agitation, and surfactant. J Endod 2010 Sep;36(9):1558-1562.
  7. Pécora, JD.; Sousa-Neto, MD.; Estrela, C. Soluçõesirrigadorasauxiliares do preparo do canal radicular. In: Estrela C, Figueiredo JA, editors. Endodontia—Princípiosbiológicos e mecânicos. São Paulo: ArtesMédicas; 1999. pp. 552-569.
  8. Spanó JC, Barbin EL, Santos TC, Guimarães LF, Pécora JD. Solvent action of sodium hypochlorite on bovine pulp and physico-chemical properties of resulting liquid. Braz Dent J 2001 Feb;12(3):154-157.
  9. Estrela C, Estrela CR, Barbin EL, Spanó JC, Marchesan MA, Pécora JD. Mechanism of action of sodium hypochlorite. Braz Dent J 2002 Feb;13(2):113-117.
  10. Brito PR, Souza LC, Machado de Oliveira JC, Alves FR, De-Deus G, Lopes HP, Siqueira JF Jr. Comparison of the effectiveness of three irrigation techniques in reducing intracanal Enterococcus faecalis populations: an in vitro study. J Endod 2009 Oct;35(10):1422-1427.
  11. Pasqualini D, Cuffini AM, Scotti N, Mandras N, Scalas D, Pera F, Berutti E. Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of a 5% sodium hypochlorite subsonic-activated solution. J Endod 2010 Aug;36(8):1358-1360.
  12. Martin H, Cunningham W. Endosonic endodontics: the ultrasonic synergistic system. Int Dent J 1984 Sep;34(3): 198-203.
  13. Basrani, B. Endodontic irrigation: chemical disinfection of the root canal system. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing AG; 2015.
  14. de Almeida AP, Souza MA, Miyagaki DC, Dal Bello Y, Cecchin D, Farina AP. Comparative evaluation of calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite associated with passive ultrasonic irrigation on antimicrobial activity of a root canal system infected with Enterococcus faecalis: an in vitro study. J Endod 2014 Dec;40(12):1953-1957.
  15. Kreuter W, Hofmann H. Electrolysis: the important energy transformer in a world of sustainable energy. Int J Hydrogen Energy 1998 Aug;23(8):661-666.
  16. Bakhir, VM.; Spector, LE.; Zadorozhny, YG.; Lysenko, NM.; Rudinsky, YA. A device for electrochemical treatment of liquids. USSR Certificate of Authorship no. 1719316; 1989.
  17. Ertugrul IF, Maden M, Orhan EO, Ozkorucuklu SP, Aglarca AV. Rapid tissue dissolution efficiency of electrically activated sodium hypochlorite on bovine muscle. Eur J Dent 2014 Oct- Dec;8(4):464-468.
  18. Hand RE, Smith ML, Harrison JW. Analysis of the effect of dilution on the necrotic tissue dissolution property of sodium hypochlorite. J Endod 1978 Feb;4(2):60-64.
  19. Turkun M, Cengiz T. The effects of sodium hypochlorite and calcium hydroxide on tissue dissolution and dissolution and root canal cleanliness. Int Endod J 1997 Sep;30(5):335-342.
  20. Mohammadi Z, Shalavi S, Jafarzadeh H. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics. Eur J Dent 2013 Sep;7(Suppl 1): S135-S142.
  21. Okino LA, Siqueira EL, Santos M, Bombana AC, Figueiredo JA. Dissolution of pulp tissue by aqueous solution of chlorhexidine digluconate and chlorhexidine digluconate gel. Int Endod J 2004 Jan;37(1):38-41.
  22. Christensen CE, McNeal SF, Eleazer P. Effect of lowering the pH of sodium hypochlorite on dissolving tissue in vitro. J Endod 2008 Apr;34(4):449-452.
  23. Abou-Rass M, Oglesby SW. The effects of temperature, concentration, and tissue type on the solvent ability of sodium hypochlorite. J Endod 1981 Aug;7(8):376-377.
  24. Rossi-Fedele G, De Figueiredo JA. Use of a bottle warmer to increase 4% sodium hypochlorite tissue dissolution ability on bovine pulp. Aust Endod J 2008 Apr;34(1):39-42.
  25. Ahmad M, Pitt Ford TJ, Crum LA. Ultrasonic debridement of root canals: acoustic streaming and its possible role. J Endod 1987 Oct;13(10):490-499.
  26. Ertuðrul IF, Maden M, Orhan EO, Özkorucuklu SP. The effect of micro-electric current and other activation techniques on dissolution abilities of sodium hypochlorite in bovine tissues. BMC Oral Health 2015 Dec;15:161.
  27. Cymerman JJ, Jerome LA, Moodnik RM. A scanning electron microscope study comparing the efficacy of hand instrumentation with ultrasonic instrumentation of the root canal. J Endod 1983 Aug;9(8):327-331.
  28. Mayer BE, Peters OA, Barbakow F. Effects of rotary instruments and ultrasonic irrigation on debris and smear layer scores: a scanning electron microscopic study. Int Endod J 2002 Jul;35(7):582-589.
  29. Tauber R, Morse DR, Sinai IA, Furst ML. A magnifying lens comparative evaluation of conventional and ultrasonically energized filing. J Endod 1983 Jul;9(7):269-274.
  30. Qing Y, Akita Y, Kawano S, Kawazu S, Yoshida T, Sekine I. Cleaning efficacy and dentin micro-hardness after root canal irrigation with a strong acid electrolytic water. J Endod 2006 Nov;32(11):1102-1106.
  31. Solovyeva AM, Dummer PM. Cleaning effectiveness of root canal irrigation with electrochemically activated anolyte and catholyte solutions: a pilot study. Int Endod J 2000 Nov;33(6):494-504.
  32. German Institute for Standardization. Effects of current on human beings and livestock—part I: general aspects. Frankfurt: DIN German Institute for Standardization; 2005. p. 59.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.