Conservative Dentistry and Endodontic Journal

Register      Login

VOLUME 6 , ISSUE 2 ( July-December, 2021 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Evaluation of Concentration and pH Stability of 10% Carbamide Peroxide Bleaching Agents

Vitor Mattos Rosa, Carlos Bueno, Augusto Shoji Kato, Renato Miotto Palo, Rina Andréa Pelegrine

Keywords : Carbamide peroxide, Hydrogen peroxide, Laboratory research, Tooth bleaching, Tooth whitening

Citation Information : Rosa VM, Bueno C, Kato AS, Palo RM, Pelegrine RA. Evaluation of Concentration and pH Stability of 10% Carbamide Peroxide Bleaching Agents. Cons Dent Endod J 2021; 6 (2):27-32.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10048-0101

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 30-06-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2021; The Author(s).


The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration and pH stability of four different 10% carbamide peroxide products: Opalescence PF 10% (OP), Whiteness Perfect 10% (FGM), Potenza Bianco PF 10% (PHS), and Power Bleaching 10% (BM4). The concentration of the products was obtained using the iodometry technique, and the pH was evaluated with a pH meter. The products were stored at room temperature and measurements were taken every 2 months for a period of 12 months. The data were analyzed and submitted to the Kruskal–Wallis non-parametric test complemented by Dunn (p <0.05). The results showed that all the groups presented significant variation in concentration, except group BM4. However, groups BM4 and FGM presented slightly more acid pH values throughout the study period. It was concluded that all products evaluated in this study presented acceptable stability within the international standards for bleaching agents. Vital tooth bleaching is usually performed using carbamide peroxide gel, which releases free radicals that oxidize the pigment molecule, while also generating oxidative stress in the pulp tissue. Bleaching gels that are more stable have better control of the release of these free radicals and have reduced adverse effects. Clinical relevance: Stable bleaching gels are safer for clinical use, as they gradually release free radicals, decreasing the oxidation of pulp tissue.

PDF Share
  1. Alaghehmand H, Rohaninasab M, Bijani A. The effect of office bleaching on the color and bond strength of resin restorations. Dent Res J 2019;16(1):47–52. PMCID: PMC6340226.
  2. Kurzmann C, Verheyen J, Coto M, et al. In vitro evaluation of experimental light activated gels for tooth bleaching. Photochem Photobiol Sci 2019;18(5):1009–1019. DOI: 10.1039/c8pp00223a.
  3. Kaewpinta A, Khongkhunthian S, Chaijareenont P. Preparation and characterization of rice gels containing tooth bleaching agent. Drug Discov Ther 2018;12(5):275–282. DOI: 10.5582/ddt.2018.01057.
  4. de Mendonça RP, Baliza J-R, Burey A, et al. In vitro analysis of the pH stability of dental bleaching gels during in-office procedures. J Clin Exp Dent 2021;13(1):e22–e29. DOI: 10.4317/jced.57367.
  5. Soares DG, Basso FG, Pontes ECV, et al. Effective tooth-bleaching protocols capable of reducing H2O2 diffusion through enamel and dentin. J Dent 2014;42(3):351–358. DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2013.09.001.
  6. Roderjan DA, Stanislawczuk R, Hebling J, et al. Response of human pulps to different in-office bleaching techniques: preliminary findings. Braz Dent J 2015;26(3):242–248. DOI: 10.1590/0103-6440201302282.
  7. Ghalili KM, Khawaled K, Rozen D, et al. Clinical study of the safety and effectiveness of a novel over-the-counter bleaching tray system. Clin Cosmet Investig Dent 2014;6(1):15–19. DOI: 10.2147/CCIDE.S59292.
  8. Haywood VB, Heymann HO. Nightguard vital bleaching. Quintessence Int 1989;20(3):173–176. PMID: 2762507.
  9. Barbosa JG, Benetti F, Gallinari MdO, et al. Bleaching gel mixed with MI Paste Plus reduces penetration of H2O2 and damage to pulp tissue and maintains bleaching effectiveness. Clin Oral Investig 2020;24(3):1299–1309. DOI: 10.1007/s00784-019-03009-5.
  10. Publio JdC, Zeczkowski M, Burga-Sánchez J, et al. Influence of different thickeners in at-home tooth bleaching: a randomized clinical trial study. Clin Oral Investig 2019;23(5):2187–2198. DOI: 10.1007/s00784-018-2613-9.
  11. Alqahtani MQ. Tooth-bleaching procedures and the controversial effects: a literature review. Saudi Dent J 2014;26(2):33–46. DOI: 10.1016/j.sdentj.2014.02.002.
  12. Xu B, Li Q, Wang Y. Effects of pH values of hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents on enamel surface properties. Oper Dent 2011;36(5):554–562. DOI: 10.2341/11-045-1.
  13. Loguercio AD, Servat F, Stanislawczuk R, et al. Effect of acidity of in-office bleaching gels on tooth sensitivity and whitening: a two-center double-blind randomized clinical trial. Clin Oral Investig 2017;21(9):2811–2818. DOI: 10.1007/s00784-017-2083-5.
  14. Sharma H, Sharma DS. Detection of hydroxyl and perhydroxyl radical generation from bleaching with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;41(2):126–134. DOI: 10.17796/1053-4628-41.2.126.
  15. Matis BA, Matis JI, Wang Y, et al. Labeled vs actual concentration of bleaching agents. Oper Dent 2013;38(3):334–343. DOI: 10.2341/11-367-L.
  16. Thitinanthapan W, Stamanont P, Vongsavan N. In vitro penetration of the pulp chamber by three brands of carbamide peroxide. J Esthet Dent 1999;11(5):259–264. DOI: 10.1111/j.1708-8240.1999.tb00407.x.
  17. Liang S, Sa Y, Jiang T, et al. In vitro evaluation of halogen light-activated vs chemically activated in-office bleaching systems. Acta Odontol Scand 2013;71(5):1149–1155. DOI: 10.3109/00016357.2012.757355.
  18. Bechara EJ, Rivera M, Arana G, et al. In vitro evaluation of pH values of whitening agents in relationship to time. Rev APCD Estet 2014;2(4):520–526.
  19. Palo RM, Bonetti-Filho I, Valera MC, et al. Quantification of peroxide ion passage dentin, enamel, and cementum after internal bleaching with hydrogen peroxide. Oper Dent 2012;37(6):660–664. DOI: 10.2341/11-334-L.
  20. Dahl JE, Pallesen U. Tooth bleaching–a critical review of the biological aspects. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 2003;14(4):292–304. DOI: 10.1177/154411130301400406.
  21. Bowles WH, Ugwuneri Z. Pulp chamber penetration by hydrogen peroxide following vital bleaching procedures. J Endod 1987;13(8):375–377. DOI: 10.1016/S0099-2399(87)80196-6.
  22. De La Peña VA, Carreira AR, Aneiros RC, et al. A study of in vivo degradation of two vital home bleaching gels. Dent Mater J 2013;32(4):654–658. DOI: 10.4012/dmj.2012-317.
  23. Marson FC, Gonçalves RS, Silva CO, et al. Penetration of hydrogen peroxide and degradation rate of different bleaching products. Oper Dent 2015;40(1):72–79. DOI: 10.2341/13-270-L.
  24. Hortkoff D, Bittencourt BF, Nadal JM, et al. Clinical study of bleaching gel storage temperature on tooth color and sensitivity. Oper Dent 2019;44(5):459–468. DOI: 10.2341/17-302-C.
  25. International Organization for Standardization. ISO/FDIS 28399. Products for external tooth bleaching. Geneva: ISO; 2011.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.