Aim and objective: This research compares the abilities of the preparation of ProTaper Next (PTN; Dentsply-Maillefer) and XP-endo Shaper (XPS; FKG, Switzerland) files in mesial canals of lower molars with separate binary canals and one foramen with isthmus connection using µCT imaging. Materials and methods: The comparison showed 20 roots matched according to the similarities in preoperative canal volume, specimen length, and root curvature using preoperative scans, and then they were indiscriminately separated into two groups and prepared either with PTN or XPS instruments. After chemomechanical preparation, the roots were resubmitted to postoperative scans. Results: There was no variance in instrument systems for the volume of removed dentine, surface area as well as the amount of accumulated debris in the isthmus region (p >0.05). Change in canal surface area and amount of accumulated hard tissue debris (AHTD) was more in the PTN group for total root canal space (p <0.05). PTN instruments increased surface area in a shorter period. Conclusion: Both instrument systems with different design and metallurgic properties had reached the desired volume in different periods; however, neither technique was able to fully prepare the isthmus-containing mesial roots of lower molars.
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